There are many causes of canine bladder stones in dogs. They are usually formed from a complication of a bladder infection. In people the stones are formed in the kidneys; however, in dogs the bladder is the usual location. Some breeds are more prone to bladder stones than others. They include the Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, Pekingese, and Dalmatian. Dalmatians are the only breed that excretes uric acid of the human type and are the only breed that can form uric acid stones.
Dog bladder stones usually occur in dogs four to six years of age, but older dogs can acquire them too. Urinary tract infections in dogs are more common in an alkaline urine. Bacterial growth is favored if the urine is alkaline rather than acidic. The urine ph is influenced by diet,
There are several types of bladder stones in dogs. Some are small and gravelly which are voided painfully or one large stone which blocks the flow of urine. Both causes the dog much stress. Stones in the dog’s bladder eventually will cause a canine urinary tract infection. They exist in various sizes and numbers in dogs.
Stones in a dogs bladder can be caused by a mineral imbalance, bladder infection, improper diet, abnormal metabolism or genetic for some breeds. They are made of various minerals such as calcium and magnesium, they can cause symptoms that include pain, bloody urine, and difficulty urinating.
Bladder stone treatment involves dissolving small stones and keeping new ones from forming. Special diets are indicated in some cases. Surgery is needed to remove large stones.
Bladder stone removal is done by surgery, which is called cystotomy. The surgery removes bladder stones through a small incision in the stomach and into the bladder.
After being removed the stones are analyzed to detect infection and to determine which antibiotic will be effective. Your Vet may do a stone analysis to prevent them from returning.
Sometimes, a stone will leave the bladder and block the urethra. This prevents the dog from urinating, which is a life threatening condition requiring emergency surgery. This happens in males mostly, rarely in females. If the stone can not be removed, a permanent new opening will be created in the urethra of the male dog. This will allow the urine to bypass the blocked stone.
A special diet of low protein dog food is recommended and should be strictly followed. Otherwise, a chemical imbalance may be created that will allow the stones to return. The need for prevention is very important. Bacteria that enters through the urethra can cause urinary infections and disturb the PH of urine again. The bacterium need less than two weeks in the urinary tract to form bladders stones again.